The Mineral Pyrolusite

biotite mineral

Pyrolusite is basically manganese oxide, an important ore of manganese. This mineral is black in color. It is amorphous and generally appears as a granular, fibrous or columnar structure, occasionally forming reinforced crusts. It possesses a metallic luster, a bluish black or black streak. Physical contact easily soils fingers.

Chemical Formula
MnO2

Derivation of Name
It derives its name from the Greek word for fire and to wash, a pointer to its use as a means of eliminating tints from glass.

Occurrence
Pyrolusite plus Romanechite are easily the most widespread manganese minerals. Pyrolusite is Found Connected with Hollandite, Hausmannite, Manganite, Chalcophanite, Goethite, Braunite and Hematite under oxidizing conditions in hydrothermal deposits. It is found in bogs and frequently results from transformation of Manganite.

Gemology
Occasionally, the mineral is utilized as gemstones.

Source
Prominent occurrences are realized in fine specimens from Germany; iron mines in Michigan and Minnesota and in Lake County, New Mexico, USA. Pyrolusite gets mined by many countries worldwide. The countries with maximum production are Georgia and Ukraine of the former USSR, China, India, South Africa, Australia, Brazil and Gabon. Kisenge Manganese Mine, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, has large deposits of Pyrolusite

Mineralogy
Pyrolusite is the most widespread mineral of manganese and its chief ore. Manganese is a tactically important metal as it forms a vital ingredient of not only steel, but other alloys as well. "Wad" is a mining term used to point out ores that combine with numerous manganese oxides like Pyrolusite, Psilomelane, and others which one will find hard to discriminate. Pyrolusite is an oxidized creation of weather-beaten manganese minerals. It also gets formed from inactive, petty marine and freshwater marshland and marsh deposits. Minerals like Rhodonite, Rhodochrosite and Hausmannite are frequently replaced by Pyrolusite. Pyrolusite has some appealing habits regardless of its widespread occurrence as sooty, black, dull, masses and/or earthy forms.

Color
Darkish, black to lighter gray, sometimes bluish

Density 
About 4.8 g/cm3

Mohs scale hardness
6–6.5 and 2 when huge

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