The Mineral Siderite

biotite mineral

The mineral Siderite consists of iron carbonate. It is a very good mineral of iron as it contains 48 percent iron without any content of phosphorus and sulfur. Zinc, manganese and magnesium usually replace iron to give us Siderite-Smithsonite, a series of Siderite-Rhodochrosite solid solutions and Siderite-Magnesite. It comes with white streaks plus a gleaming or vitreous luster.

Chemical Formula
Its chemical formula is FeCO3

Derivation of Name
Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger gave it its present name during 1845, deriving it from σίδηρος, "iron", referring to its composition.

Occurrence
Siderite frequently occurs among hydrothermal veins. It is coupled with fluorite, galena and barite etc. This is a widespread diagnostic mineral among sandstones and shales, wherein it occasionally forms concretions. In case of sedimentary rocks, it generally forms at lower burial depths. Its fundamental composition is frequently connected to the depositional surroundings of the attached sediments. Additionally, many new studies have utilized the oxygen isotopic structure of sphaerosiderite (a category linked to soils) as a substitute for the isotopic makeup of dramatic formation of water soon after deposition.

Gemology
It is not easy to facet Siderite, though cut gems of enormous splendor have been shaped, in particular from rough the Portuguese variety. See-through crystals are cut to obtain beautiful faceted gems that collectors adore. Big pieces of mineral are cut as highly polished un-faceted gems.

Source
It is widespread in nature and found at many mines of Cornwell in England and Peru, Tatasi, Bolivia; Biera Baixa, Portugal; Harz Mountains, Germany; Minas Gerais, Brazil; Bohemia, Czech Republic; Lorraine, France; Tsumeb, Otavi, Namibia; Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia; San Bernardino County, California; the mines of Franklin, New Jersey; Ladysmith, Wisconsin, Antler Mine, Flambeau Mine, Arizona and Connecticut, USA and Yukon Territory; Rapid Creek, Francon Quarry, Montreal and Quebec, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Canada.

Mineralogy
Siderite creates a chain with the directly connected minerals magnesite (MgCO3) and Rhodochrosite (MnCO3). These minerals are able to have some replacement of their metal ions, with a cutoff of fifty percent iron between them and Siderite. Sometimes assorted names are specified with transitional members of these minerals, like Magniosiderite for a magnesium rich Siderite or Mangansiderite for an iron rich Rhodochrosite. However, these can be perplexing.

Color
It comes in light yellow to tannish brown, green, gray, red, black and occasionally almost colorless

Density
3.932 g/cm3

Mohs Hardness
3.75-4.25.

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