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The Mineral Sulfur
sulfur mineral picture

sulfur picture

sulfur

Sulphur, spelled as Sulfur, has “S” for its symbol as an element (chemical), with atomic No.16. This non-metal is both abundant and multivalent. Normally, molecules  that have a cyclic octanomic form are produced by the sulfur atoms, and they have a chemical formula of S8. Sulfur as an element is a crystalline bright yellow solid at room temperatures. Sulfur can chemically act either as a reducing or an oxidizing agent, and is known to oxidize not only most metals, but also several non metals that include Carbon, leading to a negative charge in most compounds of Organosulfur. However, it is known to diminish strong oxidants like fluorine and oxygen.

Chemical Formula  
S

Derivation of Name  
Historically sulfur is a Latin word. During the 12th-century Anglo-French period, it was called sulfre. During the 14th century the Latin pH was reinstated for sulphre and by the 15th century the complete Latin spelling was restored to get sulfur or sulphur.

Occurrence         
Sulfur is found in nature as an unadulterated element (native sulfur) and also in the form of minerals like sulfates and sulfides. Basic sulfur crystals are usually singled out by mineral collectors because of their distinctive, brilliantly colored polyhedron shapes. Being plentiful in local form, sulfur had been known since ancient times and its use was recommended in early India, ancient Greece, Egypt and China.     

sulfur mineral

mineral sulfur

Gemology  
Sulphur, also known as brimstone, burns at a moderately low temperature. It does burn effortlessly in the air.  That is why it was originally used for creating a black powder for firearms.  

 Source 
In nature, basic sulfur occurs near volcanic regions and hot springs in several parts of the world, particularly along the Pacific Ring of Fire. At present volcanic deposits are mined in Chile, Indonesia and Japan. Such deposits have polycrystalline character, with the largest recorded single crystal of size 22×16×11 cm. In the past, Sicily was a big source of sulfur during the Industrial Revolution.

Mineralogy/chemically  
Sulfur is a crucial element for all living beings, and is extensively employed for biochemical processes. In metabolic reactions, sulfur compounds work as fuels (electron donors) and respiratory (oxygen-alternative) materials (electron acceptors). In its organic form, sulfur is available in vitamins; thiamine and biotin. Sulfur forms a significant component of several enzymes and antioxidant molecules like thioredoxin and glutathione.

Color           
Lemon yellow sintered microcrystals                  

Density                              
2.07 g·cm−3

Mohs hardness
2.0

     
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