Pyrolusite is basically manganese oxide, an important ore of manganese. This mineral is black in color. It is amorphous and generally appears as a granular, fibrous or columnar structure, occasionally forming reinforced crusts. It possesses a metallic luster, a bluish black or black streak. Physical contact easily soils fingers.
Derivation of Name
It derives its name from the Greek word for fire and to wash, a pointer to its use as a means of eliminating tints from glass.
Pyrolusite plus Romanechite are easily the most widespread manganese minerals. Pyrolusite is Found Connected with Hollandite, Hausmannite, Manganite, Chalcophanite, Goethite, Braunite and Hematite under oxidizing conditions in hydrothermal deposits. It is found in bogs and frequently results from transformation of Manganite.
Occasionally, the mineral is utilized as gemstones.
Prominent occurrences are realized in fine specimens from Germany; iron mines in Michigan and Minnesota and in Lake County, New Mexico, USA. Pyrolusite gets mined by many countries worldwide. The countries with maximum production are Georgia and Ukraine of the former USSR, China, India, South Africa, Australia, Brazil and Gabon. Kisenge Manganese Mine, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, has large deposits of Pyrolusite
Pyrolusite is the most widespread mineral of manganese and its chief ore. Manganese is a tactically important metal as it forms a vital ingredient of not only steel, but other alloys as well. "Wad" is a mining term used to point out ores that combine with numerous manganese oxides like Pyrolusite, Psilomelane, and others which one will find hard to discriminate. Pyrolusite is an oxidized creation of weather-beaten manganese minerals. It also gets formed from inactive, petty marine and freshwater marshland and marsh deposits. Minerals like Rhodonite, Rhodochrosite and Hausmannite are frequently replaced by Pyrolusite. Pyrolusite has some appealing habits regardless of its widespread occurrence as sooty, black, dull, masses and/or earthy forms.
Darkish, black to lighter gray, sometimes bluish
About 4.8 g/cm3
Mohs scale hardness
6–6.5 and 2 when huge